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Manufacturing Yogurt and Fermented Milks, 2nd Edition 2013

Manufacturing Yogurt and Fermented Milks, 2nd Edition 2013

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Melding the hands-on experience of producing yogurt and fermented milks over four decades with the latest in scientific research in the dairy industry, editor Chandan and his associate editors have assembled experts worldwide to writeManufacturing Yogurt and Fermented Milks, 2nd Edition. This one-of-a-kind resource gives a complete description of the manufacturing stages of yogurt and fermented milks from the receipt of raw materials to the packaging of the products.
 
Information is conveniently grouped under four categories:
· Basic background—History and consumption trends, milk composition characteristics, dairy processing principles, regulatory requirements, laboratory analysis, starter cultures, packaging, and more
· Yogurt manufacture—Fruit preparations and flavoring materials, ingredients, processing principles, manufacture of various yogurt types, plant cleaning and sanitizing, quality assurance, and sensory analysis
· Manufacture of fermented milks—Procedure, packaging and other details for more than ten different types of products
· Health benefits—Functional foods, probiotics, disease prevention, and the health attributes of yogurt and fermented milks
All manufacturing processes are supported by sound scientific, technological, and engineering principles. 
Table of Contents
List of contributors xi
Preface to the second edition xiii
Preface to the first edition xv
PART I BASIC BACKGROUND 1
1 History and consumption trends 3
Ramesh C. Chandan
1.1 Overview of the world dairy industry 3
1.2 Milk production in the USA 3
1.3 Production of dairy foods in the USA 4
1.4 Fermented/cultured dairy products 7
1.5 Occurrence and consumption of fermented milks in various regions 8
1.6 Major commercial fermented milks 11
1.7 Scandinavian fermented milks 15
1.8 Russian and Eastern European fermented milks 16
1.9 Middle Eastern fermented milks 16
1.10 South Asian fermented milks 17
2 Milk composition, physical and processing characteristics 21
Guillaume Brisson and Harjinder Singh
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Milk composition 21
2.3 Milk components and processing characteristics 23
2.4 Physicochemical properties of milk 37
3 Regulatory requirements for milk production, transportation and processing 49
Cary P. Frye
3.1 Introduction 49
3.2 From farm to factory 49
3.3 History of milk safety 50
3.4 United States Public Health Grade "A" Milk Safety Program 50
3.5 Inspection of milk safety 51
3.6 Farm requirements 52
3.7 Milk transportation 53
3.8 Processing plant 54
3.9 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System 58
3.10 Standards and regulations 60
3.11 Milk pricing—US Federal Milk Marketing Orders 65
4 Regulations for product standards and labeling 71
Cary P. Frye
4.1 US Code of Federal Regulations 71
4.2 US product standards of identity 71
4.3 Fermented milk and milk products 72
4.4 Stayed provisions 77
4.5 Frozen yogurt 79
4.6 Food additives and packaging 79
4.7 Labeling 80
4.8 Codex Standards and definitions for fermented-milk products 89
5 Principles of dairy processing 95
Arun Kilara
5.1 Introduction 95
5.2 From farm to factory 95
5.3 Storage of raw milk 96
5.4 Overview of processing equipment in a dairy plant 99
5.5 Centrifugal operations 105
5.6 Thermal-processing systems 107
5.7 Homogenization 110
5.8 Membrane technology 111
5.9 Conclusion 113
6 Starter cultures for yogurt and fermented milks 115
Ebenezer R. Vedamuthu
6.1 Introduction 115
6.2 Starter functions 118
6.3 Factors affecting starter performance 120
6.4 Microorganisms used in starters for cultured dairy products 127
6.5 Genus Lactococcus 130
6.6 Comments on Cit + Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis 136
6.7 Genus Leuconostoc 136
6.8 Genus Streptococcus 138
6.9 Genus Lactobacillus 140
6.10 Genus Bifidobacterium 142
6.11 Starter-culture production 142
6.12 Miscellaneous starters 146
6.13 Literature 146
7 Fermented dairy packaging materials 149
Aaron L. Brody
7.1 Introduction 149
7.2 Fundamentals of packaging 150
7.3 Packaging materials 151
7.4 Interactions between product and packaging 160
7.5 The package in product distribution 162
7.6 Graphic design and assessment 163
7.7 Economics of packaging 164
7.8 Regulation 165
7.9 Packaging and the environment 166
7.10 Packaging for yogurt and fermented dairy products 168
7.11 Future trends 174
8 Milk and milk-based ingredients 177
Isabelle Sodini and Phillip S. Tong
8.1 Introduction 177
8.2 Composition and specifications 177
8.3 Performances in yogurt formulation 178
8.4 Conclusion 189
PART II MANUFACTURE OF YOGURT 193
9 Yogurt: fruit preparations and fl avoring materials 195
Kevin O'Rell and Ramesh C. Chandan
9.1 Introduction 195
9.2 Fruit as a raw material for yogurt preparations 196
9.3 Processing of fruit for use in yogurt fruit preparations 197
9.4 Formulation of fruit preparations 200
9.5 Processing yogurt fruit preparations 209
9.6 Packaging of fruit preparations 213
9.7 Acknowledgment 215
10 Ingredients for yogurt manufacture 217
Ramesh C. Chandan and Kevin O'Rell
10.1 Introduction 217
10.2 Dairy ingredients and their origin 217
10.3 Sweeteners 224
10.4 Stabilizers 233
11 Principles of yogurt processing 239
Ramesh C. Chandan and Kevin O'Rell
11.1 Introduction 239
11.2 Mix preparation 239
11.3 Heat treatment 239
11.4 Homogenization 241
11.5 Yogurt starter 242
11.6 Changes in milk constituents during yogurt production 256
12 Manufacture of various types of yogurt 263
Kevin O'Rell and Ramesh C. Chandan
12.1 Introduction 263
12.2 General manufacturing procedures applicable to all categories 263
12.3 Yogurt types, styles, subcategories and definitions 268
12.4 Market statistics on the yogurt trade 269
12.5 Manufacturing process for major yogurt categories 272
12.6 General manufacturing procedures for major types of yogurt 278
12.7 Post-culturing heat treatment 294
13 Greek-style yogurt and related products 297
Arun Kilara and Ramesh C. Chandan
13.1 Introduction 297
13.2 Greek-style yogurt 299
13.3 Chakka and shrikhand 305
13.4 Quarg and fromage frais 309
13.5 Mishti doi/dahi 315
14 Plant cleaning and sanitization 319
Dennis Bogart
14.1 Introduction 319
14.2 Cleaning 320
14.3 Sanitization 326
14.4 Phage control 328
14.5 A final thought 330
15 Yogurt plant: quality assurance 331
Kevin O'Rell and Ramesh C. Chandan
15.1 Introduction 331
15.2 Regulatory obligations 331
15.3 Quality-control programs 341
15.4 National Yogurt Association criteria for live- and active-culture yogurts 346
15.5 Specification program 348
16 Sensory analysis of yogurt 353
Yonca Karagül-Yüceer and MaryAnne Drake
16.1 Introduction 353
16.2 Sensory-analysis techniques 353
16.3 Sensory analysis of yogurt 359
16.4 Conclusions 364
PART III MANUFACTURE OF FERMENTED MILKS 369
17 Cultured buttermilk 371
Charles H. White
17.1 Introduction 371
17.2 Milk supply 373
17.3 Processing of milk 374
17.4 Buttermilk starter culture 374
17.5 Breaking, cooling, bottling and distribution 376
18 Cultured/sour cream 381
Bill Born
18.1 Early history 381
18.2 Present standards 383
18.3 Sour-cream products 388
19 Other fermented and culture-containing milks 393
Ebenezer R. Vedamuthu
19.1 Introduction 393
19.2 Dahi 395
19.3 Kefir 399
19.4 Koumiss 402
19.5 Acidophilus milk and sweet acidophilus milk 403
19.6 Probiotic milks 406
19.7 Bulgarian milk 407
19.8 Skyr 407
19.9 Viili 408
19.10 Kurut 409
PART IV HEALTH BENEFITS 411
20 Functional foods and disease prevention 413
Ramesh C. Chandan and Nagendra P. Shah
20.1 Introduction 413
20.2 Functional foods 414
20.3 Bioactive dairy ingredients 415
20.4 Milk fat 421
20.5 Probiotics 422
20.6 Fortification 429
20.7 Physiologically active ingredients 429
21 Health benefits of yogurt and fermented milks 433
Nagendra P. Shah
21.1 Introduction 433
21.2 Yogurt and other fermented milks 435
21.3 Health benefits of fermented milks 438
22 Probiotics and fermented milks 451
Nagendra P. Shah
22.1 Introduction 451
22.2 Taxonomy of lactic-acid bacteria 451
22.3 Probiotic bacteria 452
22.4 Selection criteria for probiotics 453
22.5 Health benefits of Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacteria 459
22.6 Conclusion 465
References and further reading 466
Index 469


Manufacturing Yogurt and Fermented Milks, 2nd Edition
By Ramesh C. Chandan (Editor), Arun Kilara (Editor)
Edition: 2nd Edition 2013
Publication date: March 2013
Format: Hardcover, 496 pages
ISBN: 1-119-96708-2 / 1119967082
ISBN: 978-1-119-96708-8 / 9781119967088
Availability: Produto Importado, usualmente enviamos em até 4 semanas + prazo do frete
 
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